The cost to the U.S. economy of not closing racial gaps on wages, education, housing and investment runs to $16 trillion, according to a new estimate that frames a pivotal social justice issue in economic terms.

The figure, coming from a Citi report, said $16 trillion would have been added to the U.S. economy if these gaps were closed 20 years ago. If the gaps were closed today, $5 trillion can be added to U.S. gross domestic product over five years, boosting the U.S. economy by about 0.4 percentage points each year.

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